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The partisan politics led to a series of fierce showdowns.


Their unofficial laws and rules of conduct were arguably fuelled and reproduced by the fictitious matrix of the Western and Eastern films Zips These physical frontiers evoke metaphysical loyalties that were constructed, reproduced and even nurtured by the structures of political strife and competition between the two leading political parties. Nevertheless the artists cross over international borders with their transcultural and transnational products in the aesthetic field.

But does this empirical diagnosis re state more than the obvious? Du Bois to claim a meaningful position for Black intellectuals, writers and musicians in the unfinished project of modernity. He departs from the venerable aim to demonstrate that the polarisation between essentialist and anti-essentialist theories of Black identity has become unhelpful — as indeed most polarisations might prove in the light of their unrealized potential of communicative rationality.

The black Atlantic approach proposes a true universalist unfolding of self-declared universalist thinkers such as Marshall Berman and Jürgen Habermas whose works eurocentrically aim at a realization of the unfinished project of modernity in and through Western democracy Zips The black Atlantic constitutes such a potential countermodel to modernity. Its design pays recognition to the evident and unquestionable reason that eurocentric modernity inherited an order of racial difference from the premodern era that it sustained and relocated to its dispersed power spheres.

Structures of domination counterfactual to the emancipatory aspects of this Western concept of modernity pervaded the transatlantic relationships. Gilroy therefore criticizes authors such as Berman and Habermas whose works emphasize a self- critical approach towards modernity for their neglect of the transplanted and enslaved Black masses.

They ignore that the physical energy of the enslaved built the material conditions of capitalist modernity. The echoes reverberated all over Africa as she struggled to free herself of centuries-old legacies of exploitation, stretching from the era of labour through the era of territorial imperatives. A complete break with racial thought and nationalisms, even in their reactive forms, is seen as a precondition to fulfill the unfinished business of global reason.

The field of dancehall Reggae with its contested forms of symbolic capital perhaps provides a good example to test the presupposed preference of intermixture against some of its afrocentric, Black nationalist counterparts.

Ideas and performative attitudes of some dancehall Reggae artists and parts of their audiences adapt the imagery of dominant structures that were transmitted through the channels of cultural imperialism into their own particular environment.

Yet reflexivity and consciously shaped positions of critique could alone promise better theories of racism and of Black political culture that Gilroy hopes for.

But his selectively chosen empirical examples from Black music provide only a partial evidence in this regard. Those picked from the extensive Reggae catalogue, such as Apache Indian and Macka B, indeed seem to validate the potential of hybridity and intermixture cf. Zips c. This rupture serves as a precondition for the elaborated countermodel of modernity. The history of slavery and the history of its imaginative recovery through expressive, vernacular cultures challenge us to delve into the specific dynamics of this severance.

The conclusion of this book is that this ought to be done not in order to recover hermetically sealed and culturally absolute racial traditions that could be content forever to invoke the premodern as the anti-modern. It is proposed here above all as a means to figure the inescapability and legitimate value of mutation, hybridity, and intermixture en route to better theories of racism and of black political culture than those so far offered by cultural absolutists of various phenotypical hues.

Are they not in many or most cases confronted with a strong undercurrent of hegemony, dominance, and profound suppression, particularly in the neo colonial case of the African Diaspora?

Mutation, hybridity, and intermixture are of course legitimate in the sense that no one has the right to deny the artistic and intellectual freedom to choose and develop a form of expression derived from and integrating divergent cultural sources and historical experiences.

Gates Civil society discourses to decolonize and re-Africanize the constitutional bodies of Caribbean societies presented an alternative vision that appeared more convincing for a large majority as the case of Jamaica showed — though the reform process was perhaps brought to a halt because of its decolonizing intentions Zips The delaying tactics of the latter — for instance on the level of constitutional reform — counteract the reestablishment of the complex relationship between Africa and her Diaspora that has been cut by violent means during colonial times Shepherd xvi-xviii.

Du Bois or Richard Wright is explicitly motivated by the wish to document a literary break with the past and thus to legitimize the logical necessity of an absolute severance from the African origins of the Diasporan experience. Gilroy Reggae artists like Macka B praised for his bridging the gap between Africa, America, Europe and the Caribbean seamlessly together in the song Proud of Mandela have quite a few other releases that Gilroy eludes his analysis.

In his release Gone Home the same Macka B promotes the return back to yard Jamaica and, ultimately, to the Rasta village of Shashamane in Ethiopia. All these social processes of hybridization are accordingly presumed as historical necessities. It is rather if the hybridization and so forth necessarily have to make the same sense for someone born and grown in Rae Town a ghetto district of East-Kingston and for academics such as Gilroy and, readily admitted, also myself , some authors, musicians and other artists interested in bridging diverse cultural contexts and the experiences arising thereof.

The Return to the Motherland, by Werner Zips b. Academics, authors, musicians and others regularly empower themselves by crossing over. In the strive for viable positions in their respective field of action a hybrid cultural capital possibly invests its owner with a relative power to influence the narration of history and the shaping of the future of the particular field and thereby gives access to the profits returned from this intervention. Mutabaruka a and b.

In fact, the vast majority of Reggae lyrics support the reconnection with Africa and criticise the indoctrination with Western traditions without an emphasis on purity of whatever sort. A league of Reggae artists from the s onwards combined their recovery of the African roots with a critique of Western concepts of modernity as essentially eurocentric.

For these actors, arguably, the representations of Africa, the African Diaspora and the Black Atlantic as oppositional concepts to grasp the post-slavery experiences pose a false antinomy. Their aspirations for liberation have of course little in common with the experiences, interests, strategies, and forms of capital available to an academic in Britain or Austria.

I am not aware of any examples from the huge catalogue of Reggae productions over the past four decades embracing a reifying concept of race to create a theory of ethnic absolutism. Yet there are many disputing the postulate of the inescapability and legitimate value of mutation, hybridity, and intermixture. Between the zinc fence and cartoon box shacks of some parts of Kingston, the dump area of the violent actions of modernity and the direct heir to the structures of slavery, the reappraisal of the African experiences has a lot to contribute to the Black critique of Western modernity.

This may be radically different from the luckily increasingly colour-blind field of transatlantic academic exchange. By considering the great variety of pluralistic societies that belong to this African Diaspora and its internal heterogeneity, it should become evident that a conception of hybridity as the only legitimate value will not be valid for entire societies, much less for the Diaspora as a whole. Even within a particular field of action such as the Jamaican artistic field of Reggae and its subfield of dancehall, various perspectives will interact, oppose each other and claim validity.

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On the temporal scale these perspectives are also dynamic and evolve with current cultural-political trends in the field of dancehall Reggae and the musical scene at large. A close look at the individual biographies of actors in this field should suffice in this respect. In the light of mass culture symbolic violence re-enacted in local practices there seems to be little evidence to support a paradigm that upholds hybridity as a key factor for better theories of racism and of Black political culture.

Cross-fertilization is but one possible outcome of hybridization, intermixture and similar processes that Gilroy believes to be capable of providing a countermodel for modernity with liberating potential.

Ethnocentrism dwells at the root of this myth. Gilroy is therefore right to scrutinize ethnic absolutisms as rather constituting part of the problem than the solution.

Claimed authenticity referring to rootedness in Africa poses no necessary opposition to routedness. Many examples from Rastafari dancehall Reggae appeal to cultural dynamics and an identity not all that fixed, though strongly Africa-oriented.

Hybridity and authenticity may thus vary in their potential for a Black counter-modernity in relation to the particular conditions in space and time. Whereas another sector of this heterogeneous artistic field is much less tolerant of mainstream dominant culture s.

Rasta influenced dancehall Reggae on the other hand counterfactually negates the existing divisions that were created by the accumulated history of suppressive and hegemonic cultural encounters Zips Hybridity and even flexibility as obvious factors in the transcultural production and dissemination of musical forms such as Reggae do not seem to lead automatically to the prospected de-essentialization of identities and the dissolution of geographical and generic boundaries.

The descriptive, empirical categories of mutation, hybridity, and intermixture may therefore occupy an ethically overburdened status in the concept of the black Atlantic.

Yes, they are legitimate and they are perhaps ubiquitous following the post-slavery spider web of crossroads linking the African cultural forms and the political cultures of Diaspora Blacks in varying intensities over time. But this condition does not realize much more than stating the obvious. If the fusions are reinterpreted as ideological frameworks to gain a Black theory or countermodel to modernity their heuristic usefulness appears overstretched.

In my view, partly based on the reading of the empirical example of dancehall music, the politics of fusion do not represent absolute values of legitimate agency. After all, their ontological existence tells very little about the power structures behind their back. By far not all fusions are caused by deliberate free choices. And furthermore, many of the pressures in their support are artfully hidden in the liberal myth of the free market. Legitimacy therefore needs parameters that are free from contingent preferences that necessarily differ from power field to power field.


A turn to Habermas in this regard may be helpful, once his project becomes unleashed of its ethnocentric limitations. His focus on the antiphony of the call and response structure in Black music could serve as a possible link to a notion of communicative rationality that is based on the underlying participatory procedures of consensus building Zips All these phenomena possess no conclusive emancipatory quality. In fact, in numerous empirical cases they rather take the shape of orderings defined by unequal relationships of a dominant and coercive nature.

This is an important reason why Rastafari voices, made transnationally audible through Reggae music, confronted the modern concepts of syncretism and fusion with their critique built around discursive elements such as mental slavery, brainwashing, and confusion. Whereas the predominant experiences of the African Diaspora were marked by suppression and exploitation against the proclaimed mythical ideals of European modernity.

Some of these myths became extrapolated in the transatlantic Outlaw and similar re-enactments in the Jamaican dancehall field, where they clash with the profound critique of other artists who draw on the Rastafari philosophy with its strong commitment to rehabilitate Africa along with her dispersed people and their violated rationality. Haut de page Bibliographie Abrahams, Roger D.

Performance and the Emergence of Creole Culture. Bilby, Kenneth. In: Peter Manual ed. Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Bourdieu, Pierre.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Essays on Art and Literature. Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, Pierre and Wacquant, Loic J. Calhoun, Craig. The Story of Jamaican Music.

Cooke, Mel. Ein Fall von Gefallsucht. In: Riddim No. Cooper, Carolyn. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan Caribbean. Jamaican Dancehall Culture at Large. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Davis, Stephen and Simon, Peter. In Search of the Music and Culture of Jamaica.

London: Anchor Press. Dussel, Enrique. Introduction to the Frankfurt Lectures, pp. Durham and London: Duke University Press. Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. A Theory of African-American Literature. Gayle, Carl.


In: Davis, Stephen and Simon, Peter eds. New York: Rogner and Bernhard. Gilroy, Paul. Modernity and Double Consciousness.

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London, New York: Verso. Güldner, Ulli. In: Riddim Nr. Gunst, Laurie. Journey Through the Jamaican Posse Underworld. New York: Henry Holt and Co.

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Habermas, Jürgen. One: Reason and the Rationalization of Society. Boston: Beacon Press. Beiträge zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts und des demokratischen Rechtsstaats. Clinton Fearon interview Deux ans après la sortie de Mi Deh Yah chez Makasound, Clinton Fearon bassiste historique de la formation yardie, revient avec un album intitulé Heart and Soul, dans lequel il reprend, en version acoustique, les principaux titres écrits avec les mythiques Gladiators.

Chanteur et bassiste pendant 18 ans de ce groupe majeur de la scène jamaïcaine, il a composé certains des plus gros succès des Gladiators. Heart and Soul vient de sortir, le 26 mars, sur le label Chapter Two Records.

Pourquoi avoir fait cet album, deux ans après Mi Deh Yah? Beaucoup de gens me le demandaient aussi. Ces chansons représentent de nombreux souvenirs, et ce sont de formidables souvenirs. Que ressens-tu quand tu vois que les gens aiment toujours autant ces chansons, après plus de 20 ans? En tout nous sommes restés neuf jours en studio, six pour les enregistrement et trois pour le mixage.

Depuis plus de 40 ans, tu joues du reggae et tu es toujours là. Je suis toujours inspiré. Money, money, money! Que penses-tu de la nouvelle génération jamaïcaine?